Machine learning

Use k-means clustering algorithm to classify data points

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The lingua franca of machine learning is Python. However, Python relies on C/C++ based native modules to perform the actual computationally intensive tasks of machine learning. It is similar to Node.js relying on C++ to perform computing tasks.

For new machine learning algorithms, developers can choose to implement them in Python for developer productivity or in C++ for runtime efficiency. Now, there is a third choice. Implementing machine learning algorithms in Rust could provide a 25x performance gain over Python as well as safety over C++. In this tutorial, we will demonstrate how to do k-means clustering computation in Rust, and make the function available in Node.js.

The example source code for this tutorial is here.

The Rust function fit() is as follows. It reads content from a CSV data file, and group the points into clusters based on the dimensions for the points and the number of estimated clusters.

use wasm_bindgen::prelude::*;
use ndarray::{Array2};
use std::str::FromStr;
pub fn fit (csv_content: &[u8], dim: i32, num_clusters: i32) -> String {
let data = read_data(csv_content, dim as usize);
let (means, _clusters) = rkm::kmeans_lloyd(&data.view(), num_clusters as usize);
return serde_json::to_string(&means).unwrap();
fn read_data(csv_content: &[u8], dim: usize) -> Array2<f32> {
let mut data_reader = csv::Reader::from_reader(csv_content);
let mut data: Vec<f32> = Vec::new();
for record in data_reader.records() {
for field in record.unwrap().iter() {
let value = f32::from_str(field);
Array2::from_shape_vec((data.len() / dim, dim), data).unwrap()

The Javascript host application reads the CSV file, and calls the Rust function to perform the computation. The results are returned as a multi-dimensional array for the cluster centers.

const { fit } = require('../pkg/kmeans_lib.js');
const fs = require('fs');
var birch3_csv = fs.readFileSync("");
var means = JSON.parse( fit(birch3_csv, 2, 100) );

Rust and WebAssembly made it easy to make high performance machine learning algorithms available as web services.